Seminar means an occasion when a teacher or an expert and a group of people meet to study and discus something.

In seminar an expert delivers lecture to a group of participants

This is similar to classroom //// 

Articles are presented in seminar to spread awareness about new research studies

It is good way to provide knowledge to student and other about a field.

Participant can clear their doubt by asking question and through active discussion.

Work shop

Workshop is similar in seminar in the sense of that it also has some group of participants and some expert

But it’s more practical in nature than seminar

The participant must have to perform as well

It provides skills


Difference between seminar and workshop

Seminar: larger gathering than workshop

Seminar: 1 way communication

Work shop = 2 way communication

Question section in seminar after the end of presentation/.

            Work shop = more expensive & more different to manage than seminar between of practical nature.

Seminar are shorter duration than work shop

The duration of workshop depend on the time required to learn the skill

Participant of a workshop have to register in advance while seminar generally open to every one


-         Conference usually longer than seminar

-         Conference involves complete analysis of a topic with discussion between the participant for the conducti results

-         It is different from seminar in the way that interaction in seminar is like class room interaction

-         Where expert share knowledge with audience (insurer)

-         But in conference everybody participates actively in discussion

-          Opinion of every person matters

-         Symposium like a small-scale conference


Congress: -

            Congress is formal meeting or gathering of delegates for discussion about a particular topic.

It usually held once in a year

            Colloquium: -

It is gathering like an academic meeting or seminar were specialists and expert deliver lecture. On a particular topic followed by a question and answer session like a forum.

            Webinar: -

These are like seminar over internet

-         Can participate any where

-         It will be economical than seminar

-         Lesser arrangement only beeded then seminar

-         But the presenter and acutance have good internet

-         Webinar can be streamed in the forum of live session over you tube / face book etc

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Thesis writing: characteristics and format

Format of thesis: -

            Format of thesis = dissertation

-         Thesis has different chapters

-          It begins with an introductory chapter.

Followed by chapter of review of literature / research methodology / data analysis / conclusion / bibliography.


Format: -

Title page



Table of content

List of tables

List of figures

List of abbreviation

Chapter: -


Review of literature

Research methodology

Data analysis

Summary & conclusion




1 title page: mention the title of the study along with the name of author & supervision name of institution / year of submission

2 certificates: it states that the thesis is original work of author all source referred to have been cited.

3 acknowledgements: - express authors gratitude to all these who have helped him in the course of research.

4 table of content: - has information about the chapter title and it’s page number.

5 list of table & figure

            Present the titles of tables / figures and their respective page number.

6 list of abbreviation

            Provide the expand form of an the abbreviation used in the thesis

7 introductions: -is the 1st chapter.

            Which familiarise the reader with the topic of research.

2 it’s back ground 3 objectives of study

7 reviews of literature  

            Provide a critical analysis of existing literature on the topic.

-         This gives insight about the researches already conducted and their short comings.

8 research methodology: -

            Provides details about the different methods which have been used in sampling

                        Collecting data

                        Analysing it to identify hypothesis

9 analysis and presentation of data: -

            Data can be presented in the form of text / table / graphs and generation are presented.

10 conclusion and summary: -

            Provides conclusion of study that is the infuense and generalisation are presented.

11 bibliographies: -all the source mentioned here

Bibliography = 3type

1)     APA

2)     MLA

3)     Chicago manas


1 appendix:

            Last part of the theses.

            Questionnaire used for collecting data should be attached in appendix part.

            Bibliography: -all sources which have been consulted are mentioned this may not be used in the study.

            References: - only those sources are mentioned which have been used source for the referred malarial can also be provided with in the chapter as well in the form of footnotes.


Characteristics of good thesis writing

1 a good thesis begin with interesting introduction.

2 appropriate heading should be given for different section and paragraphs

-         Also bulleted or numbered list should be used where ever necessary

-         Table & graphs should be used to illustrate data & findings effectively

-         This win help in better understanding of finding effectively

-          Theses win be good if it is present accurate informative

-         Researcher should make Shure that the there is free from errors.

-         After finishing the first draft the thesis should be checked properly for spelling & grammatical mistake.

-         It should also be easy to under stand

-         It should not have too many technical terms

-         It should explained properly

-         It should have list of full form of abbreviation at the beginning with other list after index

-         Long sentence should be avoided bcc of less clarity

-         Conclusion should related to objectives of study

-         Research question should be answered in the conclusion this will show that the purpose of thesis fulfilled

Lindsay’s law

For scientific writing states that the hall mark of scientific writing is precision clarify and brevity in the order.


Bibliography format

1 American psychology association (APA)

            Author’s last name / 1st name (year of publication) book title publication place / publisher.

            Eg: encyclopaedia / newspaper & magazine / website

2 modern language association

            Author’s last name / 1st name / book title / city of publication publishing company / publishing year.

3 Chicago manual of style (EMS)

            Author’s last name / 1st name / title of work / publication place / publication date of publication.


Ip lagiursm defection software: Grammarly / urciund / Turnitin bibliography compile software: endnote, & Sottero Mendeley

According to Chicago manual of style

            Encyclopaedia / magazines / dictionary /newspaper / end magazine cited footnote and not in bibliography.


Application of ICI research

-         ICI stand for information and communication technology

-         I a t involve the use of computer / internet and other modern technology

-         LET used in research following


1 collecting data: - ICT can be used for collecting data in

            In case of study based on primary data.

1)     Online questionnaire

2)     Survey love

3)     Form can be used to collect data instead of collecting data manually from the respondent.

   It can help save in time & money

-         There will be /// graphical restriction in collecting data

-         Data can also be collected through online interviews organised audio or video conference

2 accessing data: - secondary data can be accessed through online

-         There are online portal which can be used by the researchers for accusing data online

-         E-book, digitised rare sources, manuscript can also be accused online for research purpose.

Data is an open data portal of the government of India where data and document of different ministries and departments are available online.

      Some states have also developed their online open data portal.

3 storing data

Data can be saved electronically in spreadsheet and data bases these can be protested by password.

-         There are various software’s which can be used for creating spreadsheet & data bases like Microsoft excel / Microsoft access / SQL / oracle.

Data can also saved on cloud sever.

Then it can be accessed from anywhere with login credential.

            Software can be also used for cleaning data & removing errors

Processing data: - data can be processed and analysed using computer programs. Computer are capable of performing even complex calculation with in a fraction of second.

            Average ratio / proportion / standard deviation / correlation / regression / value of statics etc.

-         Can be found using computer program

-         SP SS / Stata / R / EIKON / Nester / Atlas of MAXQDA etc.

Are some of the data analysis tools.

Interpreting data: - computer program can also be used for interpreting data and presenting It in visual form: - data tables / graphs / chart / etc

Can be used for making data presentable

These can be used for making 1 comparison 2 showing growth 3 visualising composition.

Samskrithi's Teaching Aptitude Notes Previous Pages and Next Page Click Below Links 

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Research Aptitude Notes Part -11- Click Here