Errors in hypothesis resting

-         There can be four different situation in testing hypothesis.

         The null hypothesis = true but it has been rejected

         The null hypothesis = true but it has not been rejected

         The null hypothesis = false it has been rejected

         The null hypothesis = false it has not been rejected

Work : 2018 (page & understand)


= 2 & 3 are good condition

1st & 4th are errors

            Error type 1=

When true hypothesis gets rejected

Error type = when false hypothesis does not get rejected.


Generalisation & interpretation

If in testing of the hypothesis it can been supported by the data several time.

-         Then it can be used for generalisation and formulating theories.

-         This way research will solve real life problems.

-         If these was no hypothesis established then finding of study can be explained in this step.

-         There are higher chance of generalisability

-         If the sample chosen from the population was representative of the population.


Research report

In a research report the researcher has to explain the topic of research. It’s objectives / variable / hypothesis / as well as methods that have been used in the research also.

-         And also, mansion

       1 what data was required

       2 sources of data

       3 data analysis

       4 generalisations

       5 interpretations of the study  

-         In the beginning section of research repot it’s:

o   Title

o   Acknowledgement

o   Background

o   Abstract

o   Index

o   List of tables

o   List of figures

o   List of appendixes

o   Introduction

o   And aim & objectives of study


The following sections are

o   Review of literature

o   Methodology

o   Finding of the study

= 1 conclusion

   2 summaries

   3 recommendations

   4 references

From the concluding part of the report this is discussed in details in the section on “this writing”

Paper / article / workshop / seminar / conference /symposium

            1 research paper

Research paper is like an essay or report representing a view point 1 research work about a topic.

Which supported by work of others on the same or relevant topic.

-         It can be based on the theory and material available or can be based on the experiment.

-         Research paper can have different from as given below.


term paper

-         It based on the term = it has to be submitted by the end of the tern

-         Tern paper usually written by student

-         Sub can either choose student or suggest teacher

-         It is subjected to evaluation and grading

-         It can be based on the reference source article / journal / paper / magazine / book / news paper / online blogs / report of different institution.

These should be cited properly in the reference section.

-         The source can also be mentioned in the footnote

-         Term paper can also be used the primary data collected by student

-         It can be assigned to individual students or to a group of students.

-         After submission the student may also need to prepare a presentation of it and such very helpful to student bcz .

-         It provides experiences of research to student

-         It learns about how to write a term paper

How they should prepare presentation etc.

This skill will be helpful for students in their life ahead as well.

-         Communication skill improving by presenting term papers.



Article (scholarly paper / academic paper)

-         Articles are written by scholars & scientist

-         These are also related to research and present the views of other on that topic.

-         These can be based on primary / secondary data

-         These are not subjected to evaluation at the end of term

-         These are published in renowned journals related to the subject of research.


Article = 2 type

                        1 research article

                        2 review articles


research article: deal with new findings in a study these finding can be the result of analysis of data collected for study.

Such an article is published to know others in the field about new path breaking research.

It has different section:

1 introduction section: -which define the topic and also take about the relevant literature available on topic.

2 method section: -which can be method used in the study

3 result section: -which express the finding of author word limit between 3000 to 6000 words.

Review article: -

It is based on the secondary source

It provide a critical review – of different studies available on the topic.\

It has nothing new about the topic

It summarised the available literature to explain the understanding of the topic

These are popular use in the field of medico & health care

Their benefit can have complete knowledge about a topic by just reading on article.

Word limit = 3k to 5k



A thesis or dissertation is submitted by a student or a researcher. For a professional degree.

If presents the findings of research conducted during the period of study.

It is much more than detail than a term papers or an article

Submission of there is followed by examines who has to be appointed internally (from with in // city) or externally.

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