Communicating research findings

ICT can also used for it many of the journal and magazine are available in electronic form which is easy to share.

            Thesis can also be uploaded online on the designated portal.

“shod Ganga” is one of such platform.

-         It is mandatory for research fellows to upload their thesis online on shod ganga.


Government initiatives for integrating ICT with research

1)     Shod ganga

2)     E-shod sindhu

3)     Information & library network (inflibnet)

4)     N-list

5)     Schachter avishkar yodana (VAY)

6)     Impacting research innovation & technology (IMPRINT)

7)     Global initiative of academic network (GIAN)


Research Ethics

Research ethics are those moral principle that govern the research process or the behaviour of researcher.

Ethics for good research.

Research Ethics have a significant effect on the credibility objectivity integrity etc of research

violation of any of these can create issues in application of the result to address real life problem.

The following point should be considered while pursuing research

Researchers should interpret data with honesty so the result concluded are the real result

Open: researcher should be open to 1criticism, 2new ideas, 3feel free to share research findings resources etc

Objectivity: researcher should try to maintain the objectivity of the research. In they should keep research from their personal bias

They should examine the work carefully for free from errors

Prior approval: the researcher should take prior approval. Of respondent before collecting data

            For this researcher should able to convince them the relevant of study

-Respondent should be aware about what study  B to be conducted

What data is to be collected

How it will be used  how they will benefit form this study

They should be willing to share it with out any compulsion or pressure

The same article should not be send for publication to more than  one publisher  authenticity should be maintained

There should be no duplicative publication

Care must be taken so that no harm is caused to any one during research / especially while performing experiment

The researcher should have respect for intellectual property rights

All the sources referred to should be cited properly

The researcher can also provide small gifts to respondent after data collection

Choices must be their and Should not be forced

Legality of process must be maintained

Other ethics are 1researcher should be non do criminatory 2 should have respect for students

Colleagues and other involved in search



What should not be done

1 Lubrication 2 falsification 3 plagiarism etc. should be avoided in research. As there are considered to be violation of research ethics

There are also known as the three cardinal sins of research misconduct


Suppose a researcher needed to collect data from 100 respondent. But due to some reasons. He has been able to collect data only from 90. If he complete the remaining to data set his own then il will be known as fabrication.

If is ethically wrong as data which does not exist in reality and created artificially by the researcher

So the interpretation based on this data will not be accurate is data was not accurate.


Means manipulating the data or the research process to show result which cannot be claimed other wise on the basis of available data

Suppose the data shows there is no association between times penton video game & performance in a test

But if the researcher manipulate the data to prove his point that there are related then this will be a  case of falsification

This is also ethically wrong As he is claiming results which do not exist in reality


People use another’s work while claiming it to be their own this case is plagiarism

There are many software and websites are available to clear plagiarism

Copying your own work from one research to another also amount to plagiarism. Then it should be also mentioned on reference

Mis use of funnels
Mis use of confidential information
Researcher should not reveal the identity of respondent.
It is ethically wrong to harm anyone while conducting research or performing experiment
                        not only human but animal also.

Researcher should be free. From subjectivity of researches that is from personal biases/ values/ norms/ moral opinion of researcher

All there effect objectivity & applicability  to some real-life problems.


Other important terms and culture

Action research:- in 1940 Kurt Lewin

If refers to the use of evaluative investigation and analytical research. Methods  for developing remedial  solution for weakness and problems in organisation institution

The sleeps of action research involve identification of 1 problem 2 data collection 3 data analysing 4 interpretation 5 development of plan 6 implementation of plan 7 evaluation of result

If the result are satisfying then problem has been solved or situation has improved

But if the problem is not yet solved then process will be repeated and an alternative action recommended  need  for testing

Correlation research

It is conducted to establish the relation between 2/more variable

Correlation mean 2 event or variable = related

If doesn’t mean one is cause of another

            Eg: research: number of lecture attended and mark obtained

Explanatory research

It is also known as causal research and is similar to descriptive research

If provide explanation of a problem / situation or a happening for eq: study conducted to know  the reason for deterioration of quality of education.

Ex-post facto research

It is a type of quasi experiment research and a substitute for true experiment research

it is used to study the association between variable when the researcher has no control over the independent variable

relationship is explained without manipulating the variable

situation is explained  offer it has occurred

survey are commonly used to collect data for such studies

it is in social sciences to study human behaviour as it cannot be controlled

eg: study conducted to know the impact of discipline and regularity inculcated in student in early schooling year on sincerely in them in later life


 import factor

it is measured of quality of journal

journal’s with higher impact factor are multi sought offer

it is based on the number of times the articles of a journal have been cited

it was developed by Eugene Garfield  similarly @-index @-index  are used by author’s


Onetime longitudinal research

Onetime research is different from longitudinal. research as the primer deals with studies conducted in single period of time and the latter involves observation. Over a period of time while in the case of longitudinal research. the same set of sample study over a period of time. Such studies focus more   on analysing the trend or behaviour changes over a period

Eg:- study conducted to know  about cholesterol level of Walkers  & non Walkers   can be one time research. And if the same sample studies over a period of time. That is how the daily routine of Walkering  and exercise and eating habit effect the cholesterol level then it will be longitudinal research; as the researcher will be keeping research of their daily routine over a period of time


Time series / cross  – sectional / panel data

Time series data:- data of a dingle variable. Over a period of time

cross  – sectional data:- data of single time for different variable 

panel data:-  combination of time series and cross series data that is data of different variable over different period of time

eg: data : production of wheat in India 1960-2018  will be  time series data. Over a period of time

data on production of wheat (rice / pulses in different stats of India from 1960-2018 will be panel data as it in Volver. Different variable over a period of time.

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