Define the research problem

After choosing the topic and have a list of broad objectives of research.

            Next step define research problem is a statement which introduce the topic of research.

1 explain the problem

2 situations

3 or an activity for which solution is obtained through research.

It’s purpose is to introduce the topic define the parameter of research & prescribe the frame work of interpreting & reporting results.

It should be well written so as to provide a clarify about topic.

It is like drawing boundary within the study will be conducted.

It should help the identification of research concept variable etc.

Unnecessary technical language would be avoided while writing research problems this win make hard to underlid topic.

It should convey the important / benefit / and justification of the study.


Comprehensive literature review.

It is very important part

Is analysis of books / journals / article / documentarise etc. related the topic of research.

It will familiarise researchers with works already done in the field of study.

1 methodology

2 result derived

3 short comings etc.

It will be organised 2 precisely summarised 3 and wen narrated.

It will broaden knowledge in the area of research and also provide clarify.


There are 3steps of literature review:

1 list out what is known about the topic.

2 analysing what is unknown about topic. Or what needed to be explained and not in earlier studies.

3 deciding what a researcher will contribute to the field.

            This will help the formulation of objectives of studies.

While writing literature review it can be arranged in chorological order / publication or der / methodologies or themes it will provide finely progression in the subject.


[if a book or an article referred to is written by more than two author then write the name of the 1st author and then ‘’ instead of mentioning name of all author.]

Develop the objectives

This objective – different from first objectives (broad).

Now offer complete – review of literature.

                        The researcher will have better understanding of what he would like to contribute to the topic.

He also aware of what is know & unknown about the topic.

It need modify subject accordingly.

At last objectives should be completed & clearly specified.


Objectives = 2 types

1 primary objectives: this are main aim of the study these are also known as specific objectives.

2 secondary objectives: these are the aims which will be achieved along with main objectives.

These provide support for main objectives.

These are also known as general objectives.

Identify variable & formulating hypothesis

Variable: in research focus is usually on trying to understand the relation ship between two activities. Or analyse effect of one activity to another.

                        These activities are the variable.

Eg:- time taken different employs to complete taste.

            Who sleep

                                    Variable = number of sleeping hours

                                    Variable 2 = time taken to complete taste

This is quantitative.

Qualitative concept can also be quantified on the basis of absence or presence. Scale from 1 to 5 the following are different type of variable.

1 continues variable & non continues variable (discrete variable)

2 dependant variable (DV) independent variable (IV)


Continues variable =

                                    These can be expressed continuously in decimal

Eg: weight

non continues variable =

                                                these can be only be expressed as whole number

                                                eg: number of students



Dependant variable:

1 it is variable which is under the influence of another variable / which is affected by another variable of the system.

2 a variable which does not influence or effect another variable of the system.


independent variable

            this is not under the in fluence of any other variable on the system.

            It is a variable which is influence or effect another variable of the system.

            Eg: in the above the variable sleeping hour = independent variable as it not effected time taken to complete taste.

            But we are study it effect on time taken.

                        So time taken to complete the work = dependant variable.


Extra new variable

            This are variable which have an effect on dependant variable. But are not a part of system.

            In the above example sleeping hours & time taken to complete taste then can be many other variables which effected the time taken to complete taste.

            These can be many other variables which effect the time taken to complete taste such as:

 1 mood of employees

 2 willingness to complete taste

 3 any other work he has

 4 his health etc

            Because in this study we are to check the effect of sleeping how on working efficiency.

            Other variables have been excluded from the system.

            So all these are extra venous variable.

            Their effect is not considered in study.

            But they effect the time taken to complete taste.

            So their effect will be formed as “experimental error”

Confounding variable

These are similar to extra venues variable. As they are also not part of a system.

But these have stronger influence than extra venues system.


Categorical variables

These variables have only specified set of option.

 Eg: 2 options = dichotomous variable. Variable life yes / no

       3 options = trichotomous variable. Eg

            Employed ------ : employed / self-employed / un employed

h Option = blood group A, B, AB, O


Demographic variable

These variables are used for describing samples and show that sample is representative of the population.

Common demographic variables are gender / age / martial / status / income / occupation etc.


Active variable & attributed variable

Active variable = these can be change & under the control of researcher. Eg: monthly expense for vegetable on house.

Attributed variable

                        These cannot change & not under the control of age / gender

Both are the type of independent variable.


How to measure variable

These are 4 scales for measuring variable.

1 nominal scale: is used for variable which can be categorised / but cannot be tanked.

2 ordinal scale: web variable can be categorised as well as tanked.

so this can be tanked on the basis of their level.

It is usually used to measure non numeric or qualitative concept like happiness / sadness / ------ / action…. Etc.

Eg: when asked the satisfaction of a service respondent can reply by choosing one of there. Vary satisfied / Satisfied. Neutral …etc

Mark like best / good / average / etc.

3 interval Seale: variable involving quantity which can be categorised ranked as well can be expressed in increment with known measurable consistent & equal interval this type variable includes time / temperature percentage of mark scored by student etc

Time like sleeping hour can be expressed in equal interval of day 1 hour as 1 2  3 4 5 6 7 etc.

4 ratio scale: is used when a variable which can be this categorised tanked & expressed in equal intervals can have an absolute zero value that is starting point of scales taken as zero.

Ratio can be calculated using this measurement.

Variable, day monthly view on YouTube channel can be expressed as this month we had thrice the number of views than the last month.

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