Hypothesis = tentative statement which will be checked through data analyse.

            Hypothesis predict the association or relationship between two or more variable.

            So it will provide some idea about variable and the kind of data needed to prove whether the predicted relation exist or not.

            This coin save time and researches which can otherwise be wated in collecting irrelevant data.


Function of hypothesis

1 it bring clarity preusion and focus in research process.

2 it facilitates formulation of theory.

3 it provides a direction to the research by defining the variable.

4 it enhances objectivity.

5 it prevents blind research.

6 it provides a temporary theory or generalisation which after verification become a well- accepted theory.

Type of hypothesis

Null hypothesis : it is the base of a study : this significs there is no different between two phenomenon or situation.

It is denoted by HO or HN.

                        Eg: HO: there is no difference between drug A & B.

                                    HO: skin problems are not caused by the chemicals in makeup product.

Alternative hypothesis is:

                                                Alternative hypothesis is considered to be taue of the null hypothesis is rejected.

It is opposite to null hypothesis denoted by H1,HA

H1: drug A is more effective than drug B.

HA: women and men perform equally well in administrative jobs.

HY: women perform better in administration.


Some other concepts

1 hypothesis of no difference: -

                        Such hypothesis state that there Is no difference between 2groups / situation / action / phenomenon etc.

2 declarative hypothesis: -

                        Such a type of hypothesis is used to declare the relation ship between 2variable.

                        Eg: skin problem are caused by the chemical in the makeup products.

3 directional hypothesis: -

                        Eg: drug A is not effective / more effective than drug B.

                        It state the direction of differences.

4 non directional hypothesis: -

                        Such kind of hypothesis states only differences or association between variables & not the direction.

                        Eg: non directional null hypothesis

                                    There is no difference between effectiveness of drug A and drug B.

                        Eg: non directional alternate hypothesis is:

                                    There is a different between effectiveness of drug A & drug B. is non directional alternat hypothesis.


Characterises of good hypothesis

1 it should act as a stimulus to research.

2 it should be expressed simply specifically and should be conceptual clear.

3 it should be verbal statement of relation ship between two or more variable.

4 it should be failure oriented.

It should have the ability to predict future events. 

5 it should be able to prevent blind research is the variable for which data is collected should be clearly defined so that the researches are not wasted in the collection of irrelevant data.

6 it should have the ability to enhance objectivity.

7 it should be verifiable.

                        If it cannot be verified then conclusion cannot be drawn from it without checking the validity.


Prepare the research design

Next step is to prepare research design = prepare research design our steps.

1research problem.

 2 it’s objective variable have decided.

 3 and hypothesis is formulated after a dctaild review of literature.

4 now the need to finalise other details such as

1 what kind of data is required

2 what will be it’s time period

 3 how will data be collected

 4 what will be the sample size

5 how will data be analysed soon


According to Lothar research design can be divided in to 4 design:

1 sampling design :

                                                Concerned with methods of seeding a sample for study from the given population.

2 observation design:

                                                Deals with condition for observation.

 3 in statical design:

                                                The research has to finalise

1 sample, size

2 tools, for the data analysis

                        4 operational design: are spicily the technique which are used in selection of sample.

                                    Sample size of recording observation

                                    Data analysis etc

In other words operational design has the details about the technique to be used in other 3 design.


Type of research design

1 exploratory design: it also called formulation research design.

            In this research focus is on exploring a problem or situation.

            Research begin with a broader problem.

            Need for greater flexibility in such research.

            As progress in research the broader problem converted in to precise one.

            A new perspective have to be considered.

            This may result change in sample size / selection of sample / relevant data / data analysis or in addition of new variable to study change in hypothesis etc.

            In this type of research the objective is development of theory or new ideas by formulating a research problem for in depth analysis or by establishing the working hypothesis.

            In such result information is not clearly defined.

            In this researcher /// & analyse primary / secondary data with informal procedure to draw conclusion.

            Such research are qualitative and unstructured method of research.

            But the problem = it’s hard to   1 interpret

 2 generalise

                        Also difficult to test           3 it’s reliability & validity

            As compares to other design exploratory design = least scientific and reqeosus.

            The methods of exploratory research:

 1 review of literature

 2 experience survey

 3 focus group

4        analysis of insight stimulating cases

 Conclusive research design: -

-         it is organised to test hypothesis.

-         It to test the relation between two or more variable.

-         It is dill from exploratory research because it is more formal & structured.

-         Data collected in this type is subjected to quantitative analysis.

-         The findings of exploratory research can be quantified in such result.

-         And tested using data collected from sample.

-         There are generalisable & can be test validity and variability.

-         Type of conclusive design:

1 casual research design

2 longitudinal research design

3 cross sectional research design


Experimental research design:

-         Most scientific research designs.

-         Relationship between two or more variable is tested by performing experiment.




Sample should be chosen in such way that it is representative of total population. 

We study a sample instead of the whole population and then result of the analysis are generalised to the whole population as the sample is representative of the population.

Care should be taken while selecting the sample and collecting data it can lead to incorrect interference from the sample clue to.

            1 systematic bias

            2 sampling error

Systematic bias

            If sample = biased then result will also be biased.

-         It many also arisen when. When data is not collected from all unit of sample.

-         Some time behaviour of sample undergone some changes. This will also result the systematic bias because observed result is not the real one.

:- it the data collection instrument.

            Say survey

            Interview etc. are biased

-         Then there can be also biases in the result.

-         Systematic bias also arise when the sample has not provide required information.

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