Research Meaning, Types, and Characteristics, Positivism and Post positivistic approach to research.

Research:- re = again / new / over again

Search:- to examine closely or carefully

Research: careful / Patient / systematic study in some field of knowledge.

Under taken to generalise fact

Research can be defined as the in-depth study of something in search of some new information

 Role of research in different field

Role in increase day by day

Because: it promotes the development of 1logical habits of thinking and organisation 2hop in solving problem

It important every sphere of life

All government policies are formulated after research. Regarding the specific problem to be addressed

   Considering the     

 1 alternative policies

2 examine their consequence

            Research can be also used to evaluate the consequence & effectiveness of polices after implementation

            Research has it’s special significance for solving problems in business / industry as the result of assist taking business decision.

            It help scientist on study social problems

            It can bee good correct path for student to attain high position

            It provides new out let & insight to philosophers & thinkers

            For literary men research = development of new style and creative work


Objective of research “good”    Research of teacher


            1 to analyse performance of student by recording data of their morals in the class test or major exams

            2 to know about the trend of their performance

            3 to find a way of remedial measure for improvement

            4 to analyse behaviour of student in the class or their group

            5 to encounter problem arising in day to day

            6 compare effectiveness of different types of teaching aids

            7 to update Curriculum from time to time

 In general : any research is mostly under taken to fulfil the following objectives

            1 to understand any particular phenomenon or problem and analyse it’s cause and effects

            2 to study the frequency of occurrence of the phenomenon

            3 to verify social fact / generalisation / values

            4 to suggest remedial measure and solution for problem

            5 to examine different aspect of daily life

            6 to develop principle which shape a particular procedure

            7 to formulate new theories which explain any phenomenon or a particular situation and help in advance

To test hypo thesis depiction the relation between variable

 [ 5 ws    yH ]  who/ what/ where/ when/ why/ = how

 Objectives of research

1 theoretical objective

It lead to made new theories / basic knowledge. By exploring the association between different variable.

Such objective used in fundament research in subject

1 science 

2 mathematics

            2 tactual objectives

Aim at finding new fact

This are used in history / explanatory research etc

            3 application objectives

Such objectives suggest the use of already existing theories to newer situation

       Eg : these are used in applied research.

 Research methodology & research method

 Research method = different method / techniques which are used in any of the stage of research process be it.


1 data collection 

2 analyzing data

        3 checking the accuracy of result

An the part of technique which are the past of research = research method

 2 Research methodology  

It is the study of how to conduct research scientifically & systematically

            It is a science which deals with how to solve a problem with research.

3 about researches

                        Researchers should know. About the different research method and criteria or condition in which these method can be used. Only then they will be able to use any method effectively.

            They should be aware of when a method can be used when not

Research method: a part of research methodology

Research methodology: teach how a problem can be

       1 identify

       2 express

       3 how and why a hypothesis is formulated

      4 which method is used for collecting and analysing data

      5 which method used to check accuracy of result

      6 which not

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