16)    Simulation

-         They get prepared for solving problem similar to real life situation

-         It help for providing training to: -

        Medical student

        Management student

        Defense forces





17)    Tv / video presentation


-         Playing some educational presentation or educational channels on tv

-         Used specially for showing documentaries

-         There can be discussion session or question how followed by the presentation.

-         Video show on class room

-         Or applaud online & send link to students watch their own place.


18)    Live session


-         Draw of tv presentation = lack of 2 way

It overcome through like session


-         Teacher can live on their: -

        Fb page / group

        You tube etc

-         Student can provide feedback & ask question in chat session or comment


19)    Interactive video


-         There is a quiz question along with the video. Video take a pause & viewer answer their question response mark immediately so viewer get immediate feedback.

-         If any answer is wrong he wind the video and correct the answer and doubt  



Merit: - This approach = flexible

-         Student centered

-         Student have immediate feedback to his student

-         It improve decision making of student


Demerit: - time consuming

                   Resources and experts are required for implementing such approach.


20)    It has been gaining popularity today

It make learning: -

o   Active

o   Efficient

o   Easier

o   Convenient by use of modern teacher

-         1Interactive white board & 2smart class can be used.

-         With use of modern technology learning = much faster compared to traditional method.


Merit:- student centered

Active participation of student.

Demerits: -

1 expensive

2 teacher may not willing to implement it

21) game based learning


Learning is imported with the use of games than focusing on:-


      Inculcating skills


      Moral in students

Preparing the mind set of student

Online game involves the player = decision maker.

The game progress with the badges & points of student get

- there are gaming apps for :

      Building vocabulary

      Practicing typing

      Memorizing the periodic table

      Solving mathematical problems

- teacher can plan the game according toned of curriculum.

Merits: -

- increase interest & participation of students

- they get immediate result

- student can learn as per their convenience

- it is not completely centered because teacher plane the activityll

Demerits: -

. Expensive

. Lake of willingness of teacher

. Teacher need to training

 22 seminar

 Seminar similar to class room interaction.

- there is expert or group of expert addressing number of student from similar area.

- expert present the paper followed by questions session.

- studies are used to engage participation.

- the topic of seminar decided 1st & expert of that topic invited to present paper.

Organize almost all educational institution every year.


Merit: -

- seminar = great source / authentic because expert present

- presentation skills of participant improve in seminar

- participant get to know about research activities


Demerit: -

- costly (inviting / arrange accommodate etc)

- time consuming same time boring

- if student can’t participate whole heartedly purpose of organizing the seminar is not fulfilled


No mechanism to evaluate knowledge which participant have received.

23) tutorial

- tutorial: -follow up of class room lecture

- after delivering lecture

1) a teacher can group student basis of their needs and queries

2) the teacher can then provide remedial teaching to clear their doubt in theory content or practical work.

3)if concept is clear to student then teacher can assign them a topic to present in the class

4) student presents  and the teacher supervise the presentation

5) followed by a question session

Where other student can ask queries

If presenter not able to resolve queries teacher will help


Merit: -

- student centered

- it is an effective way to teaching

- it sharpen communication skill of student


Demerit: -

- it can be difficult to implement in larger classroom

- time consuming



1 class room activity can be followed by assignment

          - it help self-learning student can work some additional based on their subject.

          - it improves research attitude in student

          - assignment should be simple

While planning assignment: -

      the teacher should take in consideration

      the topic covered in class

      level of students

      time require to spend on it


merit: -

      it develops creative thinking in student

      grade can be awarded for completing assignment on time

      students learn time management skill by working with deadlines



demerit: -

      it is difficult to check all assignments especially large number class

      deadline of assignment student try to complete without take care of quality of content

      student can copy assignment from each other.


Case study

In case student can be defined as ‘an’ “actual or near actual situation usually involving a decision: a challenge an opportunity a problem an issue or controversy effecting person or a person in an organization.

- student act as a problem solver and study the case from different perspectives.

-they work on a case by: -

1.    Observing

2.    Analyzing

3.    Recording

4.    Implementing

5.    Summarizing

6.    Making recommendation 


In order to solve it

- teacher can arrange – discussion on case in class

- student centered learning instead of traditional

- it involves inter disciplinary approach


Merit: -

1 student centered

2 it boosts creativity

      Critical thinking



      Time management skill in student


3 student study to solve real life problem


Demerit: -

          Teacher should be trained properly so that they can use case studies effectively

          It might to difficult to find case from real life situations involving concept under study.

          Case study cannot effective on short term planning

Some grate teachers

1 confuses: - first private teacher in history

2 Friedrich Froebel: founder of kindergarten school

3 john amos: father of modern education

4 anne Sullivan: teacher of 1st graduate chef-blind  person

5 Dr sarvapalli redakrishnan: his b day = teachers day in India

6 savitribai pule: 1st female teacher of 1st women’s school on India 

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