HSST General Part Notes Sample Notes 

Module VIII 



Sample Notes 


Teaching is the skillful application of knowledge, experience, and scientific principles with an objective to set-up an environment to facilitate learning. 

The main function of teaching is to make learning effective. The learning process would get completed as a result of teaching. So, teaching and learning are very closely related.  

It is a process of bringing socially desirable behavioral change in a person. 

In teaching learner, teacher, curriculum and other variables are organised in a systematic and psychological way to attain some pre-determined goals. 


The major objective of teaching covers different types of intended learning outcomes.  

Acquisition of knowledge 

Development of Understanding  

Development of Conceptual, intellectual and subject-specific skills 

Development of values:  

             To Change behaviour and conduct of student 

             To improve the learning skills of students, including methodological, critical thinking, writing, creativity, hypothesis etc. Subject Knowledge  

             To make a socially desirable member of society 

Nature, characteristics of teaching 

Teaching is a social and cultural process, which is planned to enable an individual to learn something in his life. 

We can describe the nature and characteristics of teaching in the following way Nature : 

(a) Dynamic, Social, and Humane: Teaching is not a fundamental concept because it is greatly influenced by social and human factors that are dynamic in themselves. 


Sample Notes 

Fundamental research 

Fundamental, or basic, research is designed to help researchers better understand certain phenomena in the world; it looks at how things work. This research attempts to broaden your understanding and expand scientific theories and explanations. For example, fundamental research could include a company’s study of how different product placements affect product sales. This study provides information and is knowledge-based. 

Action research 

Action research refers to the process of examining your actions, assessing their effectiveness in bringing about the desired outcome and choosing a course of action based on your results. Action research is typically used in educational settings for teachers and principals to perform a type of self-assessment and course correction. 

For instance, a teacher may collect data about their methods of teaching fifth-grade math. At the end of the first school quarter, the teacher may discover only a third of the students demonstrated proficiency in the concepts. As a result, the teacher implements new methods in her fifth-grade math class for the second quarter.

Steps of research 

Research process contains a series of closely related activities known as Steps of research which has to carry out by a researcher. Following are the main steps in a research process. 

1. Formulation of Research Problem 

2. Formulation of Hypothesis 

3. Preparing the Research Design Tools Techniques Sampling Statistical analysis 

4. Collection of data 

5. Analysis and interpretation of data 

6. Testing of Hypothesis 

7. Generalization and Re-interpretation 

8. Preparation of Report

Trial Notes For HSST Exam -2022 General part

Module IX (a ) Salient Features of Indian Constitution

Salient Features of Indian Constitution 

The Constitution of India is one of the finest-crafted Constitutions in the World. This Constitution is made by the Constituent Assembly under the Cabinet mission plan. This Constituent Assembly started its work from 26 November 1946. That’s why every year we celebrate Constitution Day on 26 November. It took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to complete our Constitution. 

India Constitution day celebration: 26 November. B.R. Ambedkar was the head of the most important committee which was the drafting committee of the Constitution of India. He drafted the entire Constitution. This Constitution was enforced from 26 January 1950. That’s why we celebrate republic day every year on this day. 

1. Lengthiest written Constitution in the World The Constitution of India is the lengthiest written Constitution in the World. It is because not only the essential rights are given under it but detailed administrative instructions are also given under it. Our constitution has given the place to various organizations like Civil services (under Article 308- 323). One of the other reasons why this Constitution is so huge is because there is a single Constitution for entire India. India is a huge country and it needed detailed rules to be applied to various parts of the States. Due to this a massive constitution is made.

Sample Notes

a. Right to Equality (Article 14-18) 

Right to equality is a group of 5 Article which is given under the constitution. These 5 Articles are as follows: 

1. Article 14: Equality before the law and equal protection of Laws 

2. Article 15: Prohibition of Discrimination Against Citizens 

3. Article 16: Equality of opportunity in Public Employment 

4. Article 17: Abolition of Untouchability 

5. Article 18: Abolition of Titles 

44th Constitutional Amendment, 1978: 

It inserted Section-2 to Article 38 which declares that; “The State in particular shall strive to minimise economic inequalities in income and eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities not amongst individuals but also amongst groups”.

Relationship between dpsp, fundamental rights and fundamental duties

 The Directive Principles have been used to uphold the Constitutional validity of Legislation when the conflict arises with the Fundamental Rights. Article 31-C was added by the 25th Amendment in 1971 to provide the supremacy to the Directive Principles in the form of Article 31-C. The insertion of this article was to give effect to the Directive Principles in Article 39-B and Article 39-C over Fundamental Rights conferred by Articles 14, 19 and 31. 

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