HSST Exam-2022 General Part-Sample Notes 


It is once again the Christian missionaries who started newspapers in Kerala in order to spread religious ideas and promote Christianity. It not only produced a great religious impact but also gave way to other major revolutions. The newspaper Rajyasamacharam, which was started by Dr. Herman Gundert of "Basel Mission" in Thalasseri was the first newspaper in India which gave way to other newspapers and ultimately led to the Renaissance in Kerala. Paschimodayam and Njananikshepam were also some of the early newspapers started in Kerala. Newspapers had a major role in the social renaissance of Kerala. But most of these newspapers got ceased and just became historical remains. This post will unearth those newspapers as it will be helpful for your PSC exam preparations. Satyananda Kahalam was the Malayalam newspaper published by Italian Carmelite Missionaries.



It was the dramatist V. T. Bhattathirippad who started the tradition of creating dramas with deep social significance. Through his dramas he spread important progressive messages on subjects like women’s liberation, modern education etc. His drama Adukkalayil Ninnu Arangathekku was enormously helpful in exposing the decay that had set in the Namboothiri community and bringing about radical changes. M. P. Bhattathiripad’s drama Rithumathi (1939), MRB's Marakkudakkullile Mahaanarakam, K. Damodaran’s Pattabakki, and Edasseri Govindan Nair’s Koottukrishi (Joint Farming) were powerful dramas capable of bringing about monumental changes in the society. These are the names of only a few plays in the long list of such dramas. The Heyday of Malaylam Drama When the history of Malayalam drama literature is analysed, it can be clearly seen that the 1940s and 1950s have witnessed the birth of dramas that were structurally and creatively excellent. Actually, such dramas had started turning up by the end of the 1930s itself. Calvaryile Kalpapadapam written by Kainikkara Padmanabha Pillai is a typical example. Influence of western writing is quite visible in the dramas of the 1940s. 


1.Parvathi Nenmenimangalam 

She was a prominent figure in the social reform movement of women in Kerala. Parvathi Nenmenimangalam was the person behind the foundation of "Antharjana Samajam". She was born in 1911, Nadavarambathu Nalloor Illam in Iringalakkuda as a daughter or Vishnu Namboothiri and Saraswathi Antharjanam. She got married to Brahmin named Vasudevan Namboothiri of Chettupuzhayil Nenmenimangalam Illam and hence she is known as Parvathi Nenmenimangalam. Antharjana Samajam was founded in their house. She was recommended by the government as a representative of "Antharjanam" to discuss Namboothiri bill in Kochi legislative assembly. She was also responsible for the first widow remarriage in Namboothiri caste. The first Namboothiri widow remarriage was on 13th September 1934 between M R Bhattathirippad and Uma Antharjanam. The marriage was arranged in the house of V T Bhattathirippad known as "Rasikasadanam".


1-Thycaud Ayya Swamikal  (Orginal Name-  Subharayan)

Also known as  - Ayya Swamikal, Sivarajayogi, Superintendent Ayya

He is known as  Great Guru of Guru

He is known as "Hadayogopadheshta"

He is known as The great teacher of Sivarajayoga

Born in  - 1814

Died on - 20 July 1909

Born at  - Nakalapuram (Tamilnadu)

Father's Name  - Muthukumaran

Mother's Name  - Rukmini Ammal

Spouse Name - Kammalammal

He was the first social reformer in kerala 

The first social reformer Thycaud Ayya introduced panthibhojan (inter- dinning)

The famous slogan of Ayya

Intha Ulakathile Orae Oru Jathi than, orae aur Matham than, ore oru kadavul than

Give the two Saint's who gave spiritual learning to Thycaud Ayya

Sachidananda Maharaj and Chitti Paradeshi

2- Sree Narayana Guru - "Father of Kerala Renaissance":

Childhood name – Nanu & Narayanan

Also known as Nanu Assan

Born on 20th August 1856

Death – 20th

House -Vayalvarathu Veedu

Birth Place -  Chempazhanthy (Thiruvananthapuram)

Father- Madan Assan

Mother - Kuttiyamma

Wife -  Kaliyamma

Other Names Nanu Asan & Gurudevan (Renaissance Leader )

"One Caste, One Religion, One God for Man" are mentioned in Jathimemamsa

Sree Narayana Guru Meeting Persons- year and Place

Chattampi Swamikal – 1882 -Anniyoor Temple

Kumaran Asan -1891- Kayikkara

Dr Palpu -1895 – Bangalore

Ayyan Kali – 1912 – Balaramapuram

Vagbhadananda – 1914 – Aluva

Ramana Maharishi in 1916 (Thiruvannamalai)

Ravindra Nath Tagore -1922 – Sivagiri

Gandhiji – 1925 – Sivagiri

Srenarayan Guru’sEarly Guru – Muthuppilla

Sree Narayana Guru was the discipline of Kunnampalli Raman Pillai Assan and Thycadu Ayya

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